In 1961, a top CIA scientist reported in an internal memo that “the feasibility of remote control of activities in several species of animals has been demonstrated…Special investigations and evaluations will be conducted toward the application of selected elements of these techniques to man,” according to “The CIA and the Search for the Manchurian Candidate,” a 1979 book by former State Department intelligence officer John Marks.
— Jeff Stein, “CIA brain experiments pursued in veterans’ suit“, Washington Post, 24 November 2010
JOINT HEARING BEFORE THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE AND THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON HEALTH AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF THE COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES
UNITED STATES SENATE
NINETY-FIFTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION
AUGUST 3, 1977
Printed for the use of the Select Committee on Intelligence and Committee on Human Resources
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402
Stock No. 052-070-04357-1
SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE
(Established by S. Res. 400, 94th Cong., 2d sess.)
Testimony of Admiral Stansfield Turner:
Next, as to the nature of the recently located material, it is important to realize that the recovered folders are finance folders. The bulk of the material in them consists of approvals for advance of funds, vouchers, accountings, and the like — most of which are not very informative as to the nature of the activities that were undertaken. Occasional project proposals or memoranda commenting on some aspect of a subproject are scattered throughout this material. In general, however, the recovered material does not include status reports or other documents relating to operational considerations or progress in the various subprojects, though some elaboration of the activities contemplated does appear. The recovered documents fall roughly into three categories:
First, there are 149 MKULTRA subprojects, many of which appear to have some connection with research into behavioral modification, drug acquisition and testing or administering drugs surreptitiously.
Second, there are two boxes of miscellaneous MKULTRA papers, including audit reports and financial statements from “cut-out” (i.e., intermediary) funding mechanisms used to conceal CIA’s sponsorship of various research projects.
Finally, there are 33 additional subprojects concerning certain intelligence activities previously funded under MKULTRA which have nothing to do either with behavioral modification, drugs, and toxins or with any other related matters.
We have attempted to group the activities covered by the 149 subprojects into categories under descriptive headings. In broad outline, at least, this presents the contents of these files. The activities are placed in the following 15 categories:
1. Research into the effects of behavioral drugs and/or alcohol:
17 subprojects probably not involving human testing;
14 subprojects definitely involving tests on human volunteers;
19 subprojects probably including tests on human volunteers. While not known, some of these subprojects may have included tests on unwitting subjects as well;
6 subprojects involving tests on unwitting subjects.
2. Research on hypnosis: 8 subprojects, including 2 involving hypnosis and drugs in combination.
3. Acquisition of chemicals or drugs: 7 subprojects.
4. Aspects of magicians’ art useful in covert operations: e.g., surreptitious delivery of drug-related materials: 4 subprojects.
5. Studies of human behavior, sleep research, and behavioral changes during psychotherapy: 9 subprojects.
6. Library searches and attendance at seminars and international conferences on behavioral modification: 6 subprojects.
7. Motivational studies, studies of defectors, assessment, and training techniques: 23 subprojects.
8. Polygraph research: 3 subprojects.
9. Funding mechanisms for MKULTRA external research activities: 3 subprojects.
10. Research on drugs, toxins, and biologicals in human tissue; provision of exotic pathogens and the capability to incorporate them in effective delivery systems: 6 subprojects.
11. Activities whose objectives cannot be determined from available documentation: 3 subprojects.
12. Subprojects involving funding support for unspecified activities connected with the Army’s Special Operations Division at Fr. Detrick, Md. This activity is outline in Book I of the Church Committee Report, pp. 388-389. (See Appendix A, pp. 68-69.) Under CIA’s Project MKNAOMI, the Army Assisted CIA in developing, testing, and maintaining biological agents and delivery systems for use against humans as well as against animals and crops. The objectives of these subprojects cannot be identified from the recovered material beyond the fact that the money was to be used where normal funding channels would require more written or oral justification than appeared desirable for security reasons or where operational considerations dictated short lead times for purchases. About ???,000 was involved during this period 1953-1960: 3 subprojects.
13. Single subprojects in such areas as effects of electro-shock, harassment techniques for offensive use, analysis of extrasensory perception, gas propelled sprays and aerosols, and four subprojects involving crop and material sabotage.
14. One or two subprojects on each of the following:
“Blood Grouping” research, controlling the activity of animals, energy storage and transfer in organic systems; and stimulus and response in biological systems.
15. Three subprojects canceled before any work was done on them having to do with laboratory drug screening, research on brain concussion, and research on biologically active materials to be tested through the skin on human volunteers.
Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications
By Dr. James C. Lin, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering
Adjunct Associate Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Wayne State University
Former Assistant Professor of Rehabilitation Medicine
and Assistant Director, Bioelectromagnetics Research Laboratory
University of Washington School of Medicine
Charles C. Thomas • Publisher
Springfield Illinois U.S.A.
Published and Distributed Throughout the World by
Charles C. Thomas • Publisher
301-327 East Lawrence Avenue, Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A.
This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher.
(c) 1978, by Charles C. Thomas • Publisher
Library of Congress Card Catalog Number: 77-21499
December 13, 2006 FOIA request response from the US Army to a Donald Friedman of California included a report declassified one week earlier, “Bioeffects of Selected Nonlethal Weapons”:
Deleted US Army Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) definition of voice-to-skull devices (mirrored at the Federation of American Scientists website, FAS.org):
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voice to skull devices
Nonlethal weapon which includes (1) a neuro-electromagnetic device which uses microwave transmission of sound into the skull of persons or animals by way of pulse-modulated microwave radiation; and (2) a silent sound device which can transmit sound into the skull of person or animals. NOTE: The sound modulation may be voice or audio subliminal messages. One application of V2K is use as an electronic scarecrow to frighten birds in the vicinity of airports.
Send your comments to: CALL Thesaurus
Last reviewd: 25 Mar 04
Note: CALL switched servers and changed it’s system a bit. The new version of the thesaurus, on the page for the letter V, no longer included voice-to-skull devices many months ago and also when I last checked (June 25, 2013).
Two Department of Defense Information memorandums both dated 17 May 2012.
The first (1000.29) makes the DoD Inspector General’s office report case progress to the appointed “Civil Liberties officer” in civil rights cases (to avoid “duplication of effort” they say) who in turn reports into the normal chain of command.
The second (3200.19) defines nonlethal weapon damage as having to be both physiological and permanent. In other words, temporary insanity or permanent psychological damage due to their use would not, as the military now defines it, be recognized by them as “damage” due to the use of nonlethal weapons such as the subliminal use defined above. They have created a situation where it is impossible to address use of these kinds of technologies on American citizens without the potential that the person or persons who approved their use being informed of the progress of the case and the legal block of not recognizing it as “damage” in any case.